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  • Writer's pictureIan Murphy

Backgrounder: Taiwan’s Civil Defense Strategy

Taiwan's unique geopolitical position and tense relationship with China have necessitated robust civil defense capabilities as a core element of its national security. As a self-governing island of over 23 million people located just 130km from mainland China, Taiwan faces constant threats to its sovereignty and internal stability. In this context, comprehensive civil defense measures enable Taiwan to sustain critical infrastructure, maintain public order, and coordinate an effective response in the event of attacks or natural disasters. This backgrounder offers a look at Taiwan’s civil defense strategy and its vital role in upholding regional stability.

Context and Background

Taiwan’s fraught history with China has shaped its approach to defense and homeland security. After the Chinese Civil War, the Republic of China government relocated to Taiwan in 1949. With the threat of Chinese invasion looming, the KMT government focused heavily on preserving continuity of governance and sustaining defensive capabilities. Over the decades, civil defense has also taken on the role of disaster preparation and public awareness, rather than just remaining a military endeavor. Training exercises like the annual Han Kuang exercise (漢光演習) have enhanced operational readiness across Taiwan’s security forces, while civilian training and the use of advanced technologies for early warning and emergency response have both civilian and military applications.

Taiwanese citizens are directed to relocate to the nearest shelter during the annual Han Kuang exercises

Taiwan’s legal framework outlines an integrated civil defense system covering emergency preparedness, public awareness, evacuation planning, and infrastructure protection. It complements wider national defense activities carried out by Taiwan’s military. Key legislation like the Civil Defense Act codifies centralized oversight through the National Civil Defense Command Center. This interagency body oversees early warning systems, civil defense training, disaster response protocols and critical infrastructure protection. Robust yet versatile, Taiwan’s civil defense doctrine has evolved to address complex emergencies and new technological threats beyond traditional military attacks.

Key Components of Taiwan’s Civil Defense Strategy

Taiwan’s civil defense system is comprised of several overlapping defensive models. Taiwan’s public warning system utilizing cellular broadcasting for rapid emergency notifications. Annual civil defense drills rehearse responses to simulated missile attacks and natural disasters. A network of over 14,000 shelters and underground tunnels provide protective infrastructure across Taiwan’s urban centers. Strict building codes enforce seismic resilience to withstand earthquakes and bomb damage. These measures allow for the rapid mobilization and movement of key assets in a crisis. Reserve forces and specialized civil defense volunteers can also support first responders when needed. This system ensures that there are redundancies across critical infrastructure like utilities and telecommunications services ensure continuous operation during emergencies.

Implementing Taiwan’s strategy necessitates integrated planning between central and municipal governments, infrastructure operators, and civilian stakeholders. The National Fire Agency and Ministry of Health coordinates ground-level emergency responses. Academia and private sector partners bolster research and development around civil defense technology. Exchange programs with allied nations like the United States, Japan, and Israel offer peer learning opportunities to further strengthen Taiwan’s capabilities. Taiwan’s civil defense planning also draws upon knowledge of civil defense strategies from other countries such as the Baltic states, which offer valuable insights into organizing civil resistance and enhancing the survivability of civilian populations amid military contingencies. These collaborative efforts enhance Taiwan’s operational readiness by combining civilian and military planning.

Recent Developments and Innovations

Moving away from a bunker-building strategy, ongoing improvements integrate smart city infrastructure with civil defense goals. For instance, Taipei uses traffic data to plan efficient evacuation routes in the event of a natural disaster or military attack. As cyber threats against Taiwan grow, securing data sharing platforms is crucial to maintaining operational security and public trust. Advanced command centers leverage AI and big data for faster decision-making during crises, while predictive analytics models help deploy first responders to optimal locations. Cloud-based information sharing secures critical communications networks against disruption. Such innovations help prepare civilians for the worst-case scenario as well as emerging hybrid warfare tactics. As a result, Taipei’s Smart City Initiatives have emerged as a leader among data-driven civil defense models. 

Sustaining effective civil defense remains resource-intensive, requiring sustained investments in infrastructure and skills development across sectors. Ongoing civil and military training and drills are essential for building and maintaining Taiwan’s civil defense capabilities and social cohesion amid disaster. Looking ahead, Taiwan will expand programs leveraging civilian resources and expertise in alignment with whole-of-society resilience goals. Taiwan will also seek closer collaboration with allies in developing technology, capabilities, and programs to build a robust civil defense strategy. 


Robust civil defense planning is indispensable for Taiwan given persistent political, military, and environmental threats. Taiwan’s comprehensive, whole-of-society approach allows responsive coordination between security forces and civilians when responding to crises, including the use of both military and civilian resources to protect the safety and well-being of its citizens. Recent enhancements in warning systems, infrastructure resilience, civilian training, and emergency response protocols have significantly bolstered Taiwan’s preparedness. As risks evolve in today’s complex security environment, Taiwan’s long-term resilience will rely on sustained civil defense investments and innovations in governance and technology across domains. 



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